Sudan

Country Sudan
Capital Khartoum
Continent Africa
Currency Sudanese pound(SDG)
Languages Arabic & English

Information

Introduction

Military regimes favoring Islamic-oriented governments have dominated national politics since independence from the UK in 1956. Sudan was embroiled in two prolonged civil wars during most of the remainder of the 20th century. These conflicts were rooted in northern economic, political, and social domination of largely non-Muslim, non-Arab southern Sudanese. The first civil war ended in 1972 but broke out again in 1983. The second war and famine-related effects resulted in more than four million people displaced and, according to rebel estimates, more than two million deaths over a period of two decades. Peace talks gained momentum in 2002-04 with the signing of several accords. The final North/South Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA), signed in January 2005, granted the southern rebels autonomy for six years followed by a referendum on independence for Southern Sudan. The referendum was held in January 2011 and indicated overwhelming support for independence. South Sudan became independent on 9 July 2011. Since southern independence Sudan has been combating rebels from the Sudan People's Liberation Movement-North (SPLM-N) in Southern Kordofan and Blue Nile states. A separate conflict, which broke out in the western region of Darfur in 2003, has displaced nearly two million people and caused an estimated 200,000 to 400,000 deaths. The UN took command of the Darfur peacekeeping operation from the African Union in December 2007. Peacekeeping troops have struggled to stabilize the situation, which has become increasingly regional in scope and has brought instability to eastern Chad. Sudan also has faced large refugee influxes from neighboring countries primarily Ethiopia and Chad. Armed conflict, poor transport infrastructure, and lack of government support have chronically obstructed the provision of humanitarian assistance to affected populations.

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References

Sudan - Wikipedia
Sudan - CIA World Fact Book
Sudan - BBC
Sudan - Timeline - BBC

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News Headlines

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Sudan: Is the new cabinet a step forward or hollow promises? - The Africa ReportSudan: Is the new cabinet a step forward or hollow promises?  The Africa Report

A chance to do things differently in Sudan - Norwegian Refugee CouncilA chance to do things differently in Sudan  Norwegian Refugee Council

Refugees in Sudan reap benefits of clean cooking energy - UNHCRRefugees in Sudan reap benefits of clean cooking energy  UNHCR

Sudan Signals It's Open to Talks on Ethiopian Border Dispute - BloombergSudan Signals It's Open to Talks on Ethiopian Border Dispute  Bloomberg

Time to Stay the Course in South Sudan - Human Rights WatchTime to Stay the Course in South Sudan  Human Rights Watch

Support for Sudan discussed in landmark visit - FIFA.comSupport for Sudan discussed in landmark visit  FIFA.com

Humanitarian Coordinator calls for urgent support to Sudan - Sudan - ReliefWebHumanitarian Coordinator calls for urgent support to Sudan - Sudan  ReliefWeb

Disciplinary proceedings against IAS officer Preeti Sudan begin - The HinduDisciplinary proceedings against IAS officer Preeti Sudan begin  The Hindu

South Sudan: UN agencies support nationwide polio vaccination campaign - UN NewsSouth Sudan: UN agencies support nationwide polio vaccination campaign  UN News

US naval ship docks in Sudan for 'Red Sea security' - Anadolu AgencyUS naval ship docks in Sudan for 'Red Sea security'  Anadolu Agency

Sudan Devalues Currency in Hopes of Righting Economy - Voice of AmericaSudan Devalues Currency in Hopes of Righting Economy  Voice of America

Unity, respect and economic support: new envoy for Sudan begins work - Sudan - ReliefWebUnity, respect and economic support: new envoy for Sudan begins work - Sudan  ReliefWeb

Situation in South Sudan - Report of the Secretary-General (S/2021/172) - South Sudan - ReliefWebSituation in South Sudan - Report of the Secretary-General (S/2021/172) - South Sudan  ReliefWeb

Thousands of Ethiopians seek asylum in Sudan's Blue Nile State - UNHCRThousands of Ethiopians seek asylum in Sudan's Blue Nile State  UNHCR

Security Council Committee Concerning Sudan Considers Final Report of Panel of Experts - Sudan - ReliefWebSecurity Council Committee Concerning Sudan Considers Final Report of Panel of Experts - Sudan  ReliefWeb

Sudan says will not withdraw from disputed area - Anadolu AgencySudan says will not withdraw from disputed area  Anadolu Agency

Western Ethiopia Fighting Sends Thousands Fleeing to Sudan - Voice of AmericaWestern Ethiopia Fighting Sends Thousands Fleeing to Sudan  Voice of America

The Rebels Come to Khartoum: How to Implement Sudan's New Peace Agreement - Crisis Group Africa Briefing N°168 | 23 February 2021 - Sudan - ReliefWebThe Rebels Come to Khartoum: How to Implement Sudan's New Peace Agreement - Crisis Group Africa Briefing N°168 | 23 February 2021 - Sudan  ReliefWeb

Ethiopia tells Sudan to pull back from borders before talks - Arab NewsEthiopia tells Sudan to pull back from borders before talks  Arab News

Sudan, Israel normalization needs new talks: TSC member - Anadolu AgencySudan, Israel normalization needs new talks: TSC member  Anadolu Agency

Sudan Situation Report, 14 Feb 2021 [EN/AR] - Sudan - ReliefWebSudan Situation Report, 14 Feb 2021 [EN/AR] - Sudan  ReliefWeb

Thousands flee Ethiopia violence, seek asylum in Sudan: UN - The New Indian ExpressThousands flee Ethiopia violence, seek asylum in Sudan: UN  The New Indian Express

2020 Sudan Multi-sector needs assessment: Briefing, 19 February 2021 - Sudan - ReliefWeb2020 Sudan Multi-sector needs assessment: Briefing, 19 February 2021 - Sudan  ReliefWeb

FIFA president Infantino pledges support for Sudan's football growth - cgtn.comFIFA president Infantino pledges support for Sudan's football growth  cgtn.com

2020 South Sudan Multi-Sector Needs Assessment: Area of Knowledge-Neighbourhoods, Executive Summary (December 2020) - South Sudan - ReliefWeb2020 South Sudan Multi-Sector Needs Assessment: Area of Knowledge-Neighbourhoods, Executive Summary (December 2020) - South Sudan  ReliefWeb

Andhra Pradesh Government Accuses Ex-Union Health Secretary Of Misusing Position - NDTVAndhra Pradesh Government Accuses Ex-Union Health Secretary Of Misusing Position  NDTV

Polio vaccination targets over 2.8 million children in S. Sudan - South Sudan - ReliefWebPolio vaccination targets over 2.8 million children in S. Sudan - South Sudan  ReliefWeb

Sudan’s Normalization With Israel Is a Win for Everyone - The Globe PostSudan’s Normalization With Israel Is a Win for Everyone  The Globe Post

Egypt backs Sudan's call to internationalise dispute with Ethiopia | | AW - The Arab WeeklyEgypt backs Sudan's call to internationalise dispute with Ethiopia | | AW  The Arab Weekly

Sudan’s political transition is at its shakiest despite recent peace deals with rebel groups - Times NowSudan’s political transition is at its shakiest despite recent peace deals with rebel groups  Times Now

In South Sudan, War Still Looms Over Everything - World Politics ReviewIn South Sudan, War Still Looms Over Everything  World Politics Review

South Sudan: Among countries most struck by extreme weather - PreventionWebSouth Sudan: Among countries most struck by extreme weather  PreventionWeb

Sudan declares states of emergency after protests over soaring food prices - The GuardianSudan declares states of emergency after protests over soaring food prices  The Guardian

SOUTHERN SUDAN: an environmental audit of oil sites is announced - AFRIK 21SOUTHERN SUDAN: an environmental audit of oil sites is announced  AFRIK 21

Sudan accuses Ethiopia of escalation amid border row - Anadolu AgencySudan accuses Ethiopia of escalation amid border row  Anadolu Agency

Burst of violence in Darfur triggers Sudan's highest number of conflict displacements in six years - Sudan - ReliefWebBurst of violence in Darfur triggers Sudan's highest number of conflict displacements in six years - Sudan  ReliefWeb

UNMISS helps restore calm and stability following recent violence in Koch - South Sudan - ReliefWebUNMISS helps restore calm and stability following recent violence in Koch - South Sudan  ReliefWeb

World Bank head says optimistic that Sudan reform will lead to growth - Yahoo FinanceWorld Bank head says optimistic that Sudan reform will lead to growth  Yahoo Finance

Sudan's first Down syndrome center opens in capital - Anadolu AgencySudan's first Down syndrome center opens in capital  Anadolu Agency

WFP South Sudan Country Brief, January 2021 - South Sudan - ReliefWebWFP South Sudan Country Brief, January 2021 - South Sudan  ReliefWeb

Sudan launches monthly cash allowances to ease economic pain - Arab NewsSudan launches monthly cash allowances to ease economic pain  Arab News

South Sudan's Other War: Resolving the Insurgency in Equatoria - Crisis Group Africa Briefing N°169 | 25 February 2021 - South Sudan - ReliefWebSouth Sudan's Other War: Resolving the Insurgency in Equatoria - Crisis Group Africa Briefing N°169 | 25 February 2021 - South Sudan  ReliefWeb

Sudan Humanitarian Needs Overview 2021 (Issued December 2020) - Sudan - ReliefWebSudan Humanitarian Needs Overview 2021 (Issued December 2020) - Sudan  ReliefWeb

Violence in South Sudan engulfs country, 10 years after independence 'children all have guns' - UN NewsViolence in South Sudan engulfs country, 10 years after independence 'children all have guns'  UN News

Influential South Sudan Chiefs Warn of Conflict Over Land Grabs - Voice of AmericaInfluential South Sudan Chiefs Warn of Conflict Over Land Grabs  Voice of America

Retracing the Alliances of the Republic of South Sudan (By Ezekiel Lol Gatkuoth) - Africanews EnglishRetracing the Alliances of the Republic of South Sudan (By Ezekiel Lol Gatkuoth)  Africanews English

Africa News: South Sudan, IMF In Talks on Financing to Boost Economy - BloombergAfrica News: South Sudan, IMF In Talks on Financing to Boost Economy  Bloomberg

Ethiopian peacekeepers in S.Sudan resist going home - Anadolu AgencyEthiopian peacekeepers in S.Sudan resist going home  Anadolu Agency

Sudan Health Cluster - 4Ws Indicators Report October to December 2020 - Sudan - ReliefWebSudan Health Cluster - 4Ws Indicators Report October to December 2020 - Sudan  ReliefWeb

Groundbreaking national league helping alter perceptions in South Sudan - FIFA.comGroundbreaking national league helping alter perceptions in South Sudan  FIFA.com

Eritrea Denies Involvement in Border Conflict Between Sudan, Ethiopia - Asharq Al-awsat - EnglishEritrea Denies Involvement in Border Conflict Between Sudan, Ethiopia  Asharq Al-awsat - English

Sudan: This week's news in brief - Radio DabangaSudan: This week's news in brief  Radio Dabanga

Lack of food, shelter in Sudan add to worries for refugees fleeing Ethiopia | MSF - Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) InternationalLack of food, shelter in Sudan add to worries for refugees fleeing Ethiopia | MSF  Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) International

Sudan Prime Minister Hamdok Names New Cabinet - Voice of AmericaSudan Prime Minister Hamdok Names New Cabinet  Voice of America

2020 South Sudan Humanitarian Response in Review - South Sudan - ReliefWeb2020 South Sudan Humanitarian Response in Review - South Sudan  ReliefWeb

Sudan – important and rapid support for a country in transition - Sudan - ReliefWebSudan – important and rapid support for a country in transition - Sudan  ReliefWeb

Sudan renews complaint against Egypt over Halayeb – Middle East Monitor - Middle East MonitorSudan renews complaint against Egypt over Halayeb – Middle East Monitor  Middle East Monitor

Andhra govt says IAS officer Preeti Sudan misused official position in 2005 for ‘personal gain’ - ThePrintAndhra govt says IAS officer Preeti Sudan misused official position in 2005 for ‘personal gain’  ThePrint

UN: Thousands flee Ethiopia violence, seek asylum in Sudan - Outlook IndiaUN: Thousands flee Ethiopia violence, seek asylum in Sudan  Outlook India

Sudan Accuses Ethiopia of Incursion, Escalating Land Dispute - BloombergSudan Accuses Ethiopia of Incursion, Escalating Land Dispute  Bloomberg

Sudan officially launches Samarat Family Support Programme - Radio DabangaSudan officially launches Samarat Family Support Programme  Radio Dabanga

Ethnic clashes in Darfur could reignite Sudan's old conflict - Associated PressEthnic clashes in Darfur could reignite Sudan's old conflict  Associated Press

7,000 seek Sudan asylum after fleeing western Ethiopia violence - Al Jazeera English7,000 seek Sudan asylum after fleeing western Ethiopia violence  Al Jazeera English

Darfur's ethnic nightmare returns to haunt Sudan's civilian rulers - Arab NewsDarfur's ethnic nightmare returns to haunt Sudan's civilian rulers  Arab News

'Historic step' as Sudan ratifies conventions on torture, disappearance - Radio Dabanga'Historic step' as Sudan ratifies conventions on torture, disappearance  Radio Dabanga

Sudan COVID-19 update – new cases in five states - Radio DabangaSudan COVID-19 update – new cases in five states  Radio Dabanga

IOM Sudan - Displacement Tracking Matrix, Emergency Event Tracking: Conflict in Tawila, North Darfur - Update 2: 22 February 2021 - Sudan - ReliefWebIOM Sudan - Displacement Tracking Matrix, Emergency Event Tracking: Conflict in Tawila, North Darfur - Update 2: 22 February 2021 - Sudan  ReliefWeb

Sudan: Conflict – Flash Update #9 West Darfur As of 16 February 2021 - Sudan - ReliefWebSudan: Conflict – Flash Update #9 West Darfur As of 16 February 2021 - Sudan  ReliefWeb

Sudan: resistance to neoliberalism must continue - Morning Star OnlineSudan: resistance to neoliberalism must continue  Morning Star Online

Ethiopia-Sudan Border Dispute Raises Stakes for Security in the Horn - Council on Foreign RelationsEthiopia-Sudan Border Dispute Raises Stakes for Security in the Horn  Council on Foreign Relations

UN: 15 Tigrayan origin UN peacekeepers seek asylum in Sudan - Republic WorldUN: 15 Tigrayan origin UN peacekeepers seek asylum in Sudan  Republic World

'First US Navy ship in decades' docks in Port Sudan - Radio Dabanga'First US Navy ship in decades' docks in Port Sudan  Radio Dabanga

Update: UNDP's focus and contribution to the Sudan Humanitarian Response Plan 2021 - Sudan - ReliefWebUpdate: UNDP's focus and contribution to the Sudan Humanitarian Response Plan 2021 - Sudan  ReliefWeb

Floods, fighting, famine: South Sudan's triple crisis - The New HumanitarianFloods, fighting, famine: South Sudan's triple crisis  The New Humanitarian

In Sudan Border Town, Desperate Ethiopians Find ‘Second Mother Country’ - The New York TimesIn Sudan Border Town, Desperate Ethiopians Find ‘Second Mother Country’  The New York Times

A Glimmer of Hope for South Sudan's Victims - Human Rights WatchA Glimmer of Hope for South Sudan's Victims  Human Rights Watch

Sudan, Ethiopia Clash: Tanks, Weapons Moved to Disputed Border Territory - BloombergSudan, Ethiopia Clash: Tanks, Weapons Moved to Disputed Border Territory  Bloomberg

Filling of Ethiopia's Renaissance Dam in July Called Threat to Sudan's Security - Voice of AmericaFilling of Ethiopia's Renaissance Dam in July Called Threat to Sudan's Security  Voice of America

184,000 Displaced in West Darfur Need Food, Shelter - Voice of America184,000 Displaced in West Darfur Need Food, Shelter  Voice of America

Hamdok: Sudan government committed to peace deal with holdout rebels - Radio DabangaHamdok: Sudan government committed to peace deal with holdout rebels  Radio Dabanga

Fear of cholera outbreak in West Darfur - Sudan - ReliefWebFear of cholera outbreak in West Darfur - Sudan  ReliefWeb

Luol Deng's South Sudan revel in FIBA AfroBasket 2021 qualification - FIBALuol Deng's South Sudan revel in FIBA AfroBasket 2021 qualification  FIBA

Sudanese govt 'committed' to trial of Darfur war criminals - Radio DabangaSudanese govt 'committed' to trial of Darfur war criminals  Radio Dabanga

South Sudan Integrates Environmental Protection with Hydrocarbon Exploration - Africa Oil & PowerSouth Sudan Integrates Environmental Protection with Hydrocarbon Exploration  Africa Oil & Power

Sudan Shriners vow New Bern loyalty as its home, providing free medical care for children - New Bern Sun JournalSudan Shriners vow New Bern loyalty as its home, providing free medical care for children  New Bern Sun Journal

'You Will Die At Twenty' Is Sudan's First Ever Academy Awards Entry - NPR'You Will Die At Twenty' Is Sudan's First Ever Academy Awards Entry  NPR

As a fragile peace takes hold, some South Sudanese refugees head home - South Sudan - ReliefWebAs a fragile peace takes hold, some South Sudanese refugees head home - South Sudan  ReliefWeb

Sudan's government promised to protect Darfur. Instead scores are dead - Middle East EyeSudan's government promised to protect Darfur. Instead scores are dead  Middle East Eye

South Sudan: Rampant abusive surveillance by NSS instils climate of fear - Amnesty InternationalSouth Sudan: Rampant abusive surveillance by NSS instils climate of fear  Amnesty International

Sudan: Flash Update #8 - Conflict, West Darfur and South Darfur, as of 8 February 2020 - Sudan - ReliefWebSudan: Flash Update #8 - Conflict, West Darfur and South Darfur, as of 8 February 2020 - Sudan  ReliefWeb

Sudan annual inflation climbs above 300% to highest rate in decades - NasdaqSudan annual inflation climbs above 300% to highest rate in decades  Nasdaq

WFP Sudan calls for funding to support refugees from Ethiopia, thanks Japan [EN/AR] - Sudan - ReliefWebWFP Sudan calls for funding to support refugees from Ethiopia, thanks Japan [EN/AR] - Sudan  ReliefWeb

Sudan: Flash Update #6 - Conflict, West Darfur and South Darfur, 31 Jan 2021 - Sudan - ReliefWebSudan: Flash Update #6 - Conflict, West Darfur and South Darfur, 31 Jan 2021 - Sudan  ReliefWeb

Border tensions mount between Sudan, Ethiopia - Mail and GuardianBorder tensions mount between Sudan, Ethiopia  Mail and Guardian

South Sudan - Crisis Fact Sheet #2, Fiscal Year (FY) 2021 - South Sudan - ReliefWebSouth Sudan - Crisis Fact Sheet #2, Fiscal Year (FY) 2021 - South Sudan  ReliefWeb

South Sudan Declares Partial Lockdown on COVID Surge - Voice of AmericaSouth Sudan Declares Partial Lockdown on COVID Surge  Voice of America

Sudan: Flash Update #5 - Conflict, West Darfur and South Darfur, 28 Jan 2021 - Sudan - ReliefWebSudan: Flash Update #5 - Conflict, West Darfur and South Darfur, 28 Jan 2021 - Sudan  ReliefWeb

ACAPS Briefing Note: Sudan: Displacement resulting from conflict (08 February 2021) - Sudan - ReliefWebACAPS Briefing Note: Sudan: Displacement resulting from conflict (08 February 2021) - Sudan  ReliefWeb

'You will die at 20,' Sudan's first feature film in years becomes its first entry to the Oscars - KGO-TV'You will die at 20,' Sudan's first feature film in years becomes its first entry to the Oscars  KGO-TV

Sudan: Flash Update #7 - Conflict, West Darfur and South Darfur, 3 Feb 2021 [EN/AR] - Sudan - ReliefWebSudan: Flash Update #7 - Conflict, West Darfur and South Darfur, 3 Feb 2021 [EN/AR] - Sudan  ReliefWeb