Libya

Country Libya
Capital Tripoli
Continent Africa
Currency Libyan dinar(LYD)
Languages Arabic, Berber & Libyan Arabic

Information

Introduction

The Italians supplanted the Ottoman Turks in the area around Tripoli in 1911 and did not relinquish their hold until 1943 when defeated in World War II. Libya then passed to UN administration and achieved independence in 1951. Following a 1969 military coup, Col. Muammar Abu Minyar al-QADHAFI began to espouse his own political system, the Third Universal Theory. The system is a combination of socialism and Islam derived in part from tribal practices and is supposed to be implemented by the Libyan people themselves in a unique form of "direct democracy." QADHAFI has always seen himself as a revolutionary and visionary leader. He used oil funds during the 1970s and 1980s to promote his ideology outside Libya, supporting subversives and terrorists abroad to hasten the end of Marxism and capitalism. In addition, beginning in 1973, he engaged in military operations in northern Chad's Aozou Strip - to gain access to minerals and to use as a base of influence in Chadian politics - but was forced to retreat in 1987. UN sanctions in 1992 isolated QADHAFI politically following the downing of Pan AM Flight 103 over Lockerbie, Scotland. During the 1990s, QADHAFI began to rebuild his relationships with Europe. UN sanctions were suspended in April 1999 and finally lifted in September 2003 after Libya accepted responsibility for the Lockerbie bombing. In December 2003, Libya announced that it had agreed to reveal and end its programs to develop weapons of mass destruction and to renounce terrorism. QADHAFI has made significant strides in normalizing relations with Western nations since then. He has received various Western European leaders as well as many working-level and commercial delegations, and made his first trip to Western Europe in 15 years when he traveled to Brussels in April 2004. The US rescinded Libya's designation as a state sponsor of terrorism in June 2006. In January 2008, Libya assumed a nonpermanent seat on the UN Security Council for the 2008-09 term. In August 2008, the US and Libya signed a bilateral comprehensive claims settlement agreement to compensate claimants in both countries who allege injury or death at the hands of the other country, including the Lockerbie bombing, the LaBelle disco bombing, and the UTA 772 bombing. In October 2008, the US Government received $1.5 billion pursuant to the agreement to distribute to US national claimants, and as a result effectively normalized its bilateral relationship with Libya. The two countries then exchanged ambassadors for the first time since 1973 in January 2009. QADHAFI in February 2009 took over as chairman of the African Union for the 2009-10 term; in September 2009, a Libyan took over the year-long presidency of UN General Assembly.

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References

Libya - Wikipedia
Libya - CIA World Fact Book
Libya - BBC
Libya - Timeline - BBC

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The EU's Shame Is Locked Away in Libya - The NationThe EU's Shame Is Locked Away in Libya  The Nation

Exclusive: ‘I don’t want to go back to Libya,’ plead migrants trying to flee - FRANCE 24Exclusive: ‘I don’t want to go back to Libya,’ plead migrants trying to flee  FRANCE 24

Drones add new scale to Libya’s battle for Tripoli - FRANCE 24 EnglishDrones add new scale to Libya’s battle for Tripoli  FRANCE 24 English

Libyan lives overturned as civilians bear the brunt of the battle for Tripoli - FRANCE 24 EnglishLibyan lives overturned as civilians bear the brunt of the battle for Tripoli  FRANCE 24 English

Russia throws more weight behind Haftar in Libya Russia throws more weight behind Haftar in Libya - Institute for Security StudiesRussia throws more weight behind Haftar in Libya Russia throws more weight behind Haftar in Libya  Institute for Security Studies

Libya: Migrant mother's dying wish to get children to Europe - BBC NewsLibya: Migrant mother's dying wish to get children to Europe  BBC News

Libya Urges U.S. to Help End Conflict as Russian Role Grows - BloombergLibya Urges U.S. to Help End Conflict as Russian Role Grows  Bloomberg

Foreign jets used in Libyan refugee centre airstrike, says UN - The GuardianForeign jets used in Libyan refugee centre airstrike, says UN  The Guardian

Libya recall keeper after eight year absence - BBC NewsLibya recall keeper after eight year absence  BBC News

Libyan minister slams Russia, urges US to help - Anadolu AgencyLibyan minister slams Russia, urges US to help  Anadolu Agency

Why are countries breaking the arms embargo on Libya? - Aljazeera.comWhy are countries breaking the arms embargo on Libya?  Aljazeera.com

Italy's dubious policies in Libya - Al Jazeera EnglishItaly's dubious policies in Libya  Al Jazeera English

Libya in chaos as endless war rumbles on - BBC NewsLibya in chaos as endless war rumbles on  BBC News

Malta's deputy PM says his country is ready to help Libya - Xinhua | English.news.cn - XinhuaMalta's deputy PM says his country is ready to help Libya - Xinhua | English.news.cn  Xinhua

Property prices soar in Libya's capital as displaced seek housing - ReutersProperty prices soar in Libya's capital as displaced seek housing  Reuters

First voluntary return flights for Sudanese nationals in Libya arrive in Khartoum - The Libya ObserverFirst voluntary return flights for Sudanese nationals in Libya arrive in Khartoum  The Libya Observer

UN experts say Libya airstrike likely tied to Hifter allies - Chicago TribuneUN experts say Libya airstrike likely tied to Hifter allies  Chicago Tribune

Frontline clashes ebb and flow as Libya's war hits impasse - ReutersFrontline clashes ebb and flow as Libya's war hits impasse  Reuters

Russian Snipers, Missiles and Warplanes Try to Tilt Libyan War - The New York TimesRussian Snipers, Missiles and Warplanes Try to Tilt Libyan War  The New York Times

Turkey’s considerable military support for Islamist rebels in Libya may not be linked to any shared ideology, but rather a direct result of Qatar’s post-Arab spring connection to a Libyan Islamist who just happened to meet the right people in Doha. - AhvalTurkey’s considerable military support for Islamist rebels in Libya may not be linked to any shared ideology, but rather a direct result of Qatar’s post-Arab spring connection to a Libyan Islamist who just happened to meet the right people in Doha.  Ahval

Libya ordered arrest of alleged trafficker who attended Italy migration talks - The GuardianLibya ordered arrest of alleged trafficker who attended Italy migration talks  The Guardian

Delayed payments in Libya angered SNC-Lavalin bosses, jury hears - Montreal GazetteDelayed payments in Libya angered SNC-Lavalin bosses, jury hears  Montreal Gazette

Libya Gender-Based Violence AOR (Jan - Sept 2019) [EN/AR] - Libya - ReliefWebLibya Gender-Based Violence AOR (Jan - Sept 2019) [EN/AR] - Libya  ReliefWeb

Libya plans to launch vast reconstruction program with int'l support: minister - Xinhua | English.news.cn - XinhuaLibya plans to launch vast reconstruction program with int'l support: minister - Xinhua | English.news.cn  Xinhua

Clashes reported in Libya as sides reject diplomacy - Al Jazeera EnglishClashes reported in Libya as sides reject diplomacy  Al Jazeera English

450 killed in traffic accidents in Libya in Q3 - Xinhua | English.news.cn - Xinhua450 killed in traffic accidents in Libya in Q3 - Xinhua | English.news.cn  Xinhua

Italy to renew anti-migration deal with Libya - The GuardianItaly to renew anti-migration deal with Libya  The Guardian

Torture, rape and murder: inside Tripoli's refugee detention camps - The GuardianTorture, rape and murder: inside Tripoli's refugee detention camps  The Guardian

Exposed: Malta's secret migrant deal with Libya - Times of MaltaExposed: Malta's secret migrant deal with Libya  Times of Malta

Egyptian FM, UN envoy discuss ways to resolve Libyan crisis - Xinhua | English.news.cn - XinhuaEgyptian FM, UN envoy discuss ways to resolve Libyan crisis - Xinhua | English.news.cn  Xinhua

Four countries accused of violating Libya sanctions – UN report - defenceWebFour countries accused of violating Libya sanctions – UN report  defenceWeb

Russia Positioning Itself in Libya to Unleash Migrant Crisis Into Europe - U.S. News & World ReportRussia Positioning Itself in Libya to Unleash Migrant Crisis Into Europe  U.S. News & World Report

'Violence, atrocities and impunity' reign throughout Libya, ICC prosecutor tells UN Security Council - UN News'Violence, atrocities and impunity' reign throughout Libya, ICC prosecutor tells UN Security Council  UN News

Libyan embassy knows nothing of Gafá meetings, despite denying secret deal - Times of MaltaLibyan embassy knows nothing of Gafá meetings, despite denying secret deal  Times of Malta

Air strike in Libyan capital Tripoli kills three young sisters - ReutersAir strike in Libyan capital Tripoli kills three young sisters  Reuters

Libya Renditions: The CIA, MI6 and Gaddafi's Secret Prisons - Al Jazeera AmericaLibya Renditions: The CIA, MI6 and Gaddafi's Secret Prisons  Al Jazeera America

Libya reopens Tripoli's Mitiga airport after two months of closure - ReutersLibya reopens Tripoli's Mitiga airport after two months of closure  Reuters

Russia in Libya, China Trade, Trump Inquiry: Your Wednesday Briefing - The New York TimesRussia in Libya, China Trade, Trump Inquiry: Your Wednesday Briefing  The New York Times

Ukraine imports Libyan crude for first time - S&P GlobalUkraine imports Libyan crude for first time  S&P Global

Anti-migration deal between Italy and Libya renewed - Al Jazeera EnglishAnti-migration deal between Italy and Libya renewed  Al Jazeera English

Russia given free rein to enter Libya | World - The TimesRussia given free rein to enter Libya | World  The Times

[WATCH] Malta ready to help Libyan goverment with internal problems - Deputy PM - MaltaToday[WATCH] Malta ready to help Libyan goverment with internal problems - Deputy PM  MaltaToday

British Museum set to return ancient Greek statue looted from Libya - Middle East EyeBritish Museum set to return ancient Greek statue looted from Libya  Middle East Eye

Libya: Civilians caught in the crossfire as militias battle for Tripoli - Amnesty InternationalLibya: Civilians caught in the crossfire as militias battle for Tripoli  Amnesty International

Hundreds of Migrants in Libya Flee Detention, Cite Hunger - VOA NewsHundreds of Migrants in Libya Flee Detention, Cite Hunger  VOA News

UNHCR: More than 300 thousand people displaced in Libya due to armed clashes - The Libya ObserverUNHCR: More than 300 thousand people displaced in Libya due to armed clashes  The Libya Observer

Libya: Deadly Airstrike Apparently Unlawful - Human Rights WatchLibya: Deadly Airstrike Apparently Unlawful  Human Rights Watch

UNHCR Update Libya (8 November 2019 ) [EN/AR] - Libya - ReliefWebUNHCR Update Libya (8 November 2019 ) [EN/AR] - Libya  ReliefWeb

Gunmen raid cafes in Libya capital to curb social freedoms - ReutersGunmen raid cafes in Libya capital to curb social freedoms  Reuters

UNHCR probes Libya-Malta interception in migrant rescue - The Associated PressUNHCR probes Libya-Malta interception in migrant rescue  The Associated Press

Khalifa Haftar’s offensive in Libya - Global Risk InsightsKhalifa Haftar’s offensive in Libya  Global Risk Insights

Britain to return persephonic statue to Libya - The Libya ObserverBritain to return persephonic statue to Libya  The Libya Observer

NATO countries should help Egypt mitigate security challenge near Libyan border - Atlantic CouncilNATO countries should help Egypt mitigate security challenge near Libyan border  Atlantic Council

Libya denies striking secret migration deal with Malta - The Libya ObserverLibya denies striking secret migration deal with Malta  The Libya Observer

War creates new uncertainty for migrants in Libya - ReutersWar creates new uncertainty for migrants in Libya  Reuters

Seven children reported killed and scores injured as violence continues in Libya - UNICEFSeven children reported killed and scores injured as violence continues in Libya  UNICEF

Libya stops salaries of thousands of teachers without documents - ReutersLibya stops salaries of thousands of teachers without documents  Reuters

Both sides in Libya’s devastating conflict likely committing war crimes, says Amnesty - The IndependentBoth sides in Libya’s devastating conflict likely committing war crimes, says Amnesty  The Independent

Vulnerable child and women refugees refused evacuation from Libya - Al Jazeera EnglishVulnerable child and women refugees refused evacuation from Libya  Al Jazeera English

'Libya Is Not A Safe Port', EU Commission Says After Malta's Secret Migrant Pushback - Lovin Malta'Libya Is Not A Safe Port', EU Commission Says After Malta's Secret Migrant Pushback  Lovin Malta

Moamar Gaddafi has been dead eight years yet Libya is still at war with itself. What went wrong? - ABC NewsMoamar Gaddafi has been dead eight years yet Libya is still at war with itself. What went wrong?  ABC News

Libya's GNA Backs Gaddafi Son’s Trial at ICC - Asharq Al-awsat EnglishLibya's GNA Backs Gaddafi Son’s Trial at ICC  Asharq Al-awsat English

African Refugees Evacuated from Libya Tell Horror Stories in Rwanda - VOA NewsAfrican Refugees Evacuated from Libya Tell Horror Stories in Rwanda  VOA News

Desperate African refugees pay to get into Libyan jails: UNHCR - ReutersDesperate African refugees pay to get into Libyan jails: UNHCR  Reuters

Sudan accused of violating Libya arms embargo - Radio DabangaSudan accused of violating Libya arms embargo  Radio Dabanga

Turkey violates arms embargo on Libya - UN report - AhvalTurkey violates arms embargo on Libya - UN report  Ahval

Injury deprives Libya of captain Ahmad Benali - BBC NewsInjury deprives Libya of captain Ahmad Benali  BBC News

Libyan embassy insists there is no secret migration deal with Malta - Times of MaltaLibyan embassy insists there is no secret migration deal with Malta  Times of Malta

UNHCR Update Libya (25 October 2019) [EN/AR] - Libya - ReliefWebUNHCR Update Libya (25 October 2019) [EN/AR] - Libya  ReliefWeb

Libyan Audit Bureau selected for membership of executive board of the Arab Organization of Supervisory Organs - The Libya ObserverLibyan Audit Bureau selected for membership of executive board of the Arab Organization of Supervisory Organs  The Libya Observer

Libya: Abducted Medical Staff Freed After 12 Days - Human Rights WatchLibya: Abducted Medical Staff Freed After 12 Days  Human Rights Watch

BLS International exclusive partner for Embassy of Libya for Visa services in India - United News of IndiaBLS International exclusive partner for Embassy of Libya for Visa services in India  United News of India

No military solution to crisis in Libya, Foreign Minister reiterates - The Libya ObserverNo military solution to crisis in Libya, Foreign Minister reiterates  The Libya Observer

Oil Companies Return To Libya Despite Civil War - OilPrice.comOil Companies Return To Libya Despite Civil War  OilPrice.com

Worsening conditions in Libya follow closure of detention centre | MSF - Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) InternationalWorsening conditions in Libya follow closure of detention centre | MSF  Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) International

Victims of Libya air raids fear returning home - Al Jazeera AmericaVictims of Libya air raids fear returning home  Al Jazeera America

Russia denies sending mercenaries to Libya - Times of MaltaRussia denies sending mercenaries to Libya  Times of Malta

Plastics plant restart in Libyan port offers rare economic bright spot - ReutersPlastics plant restart in Libyan port offers rare economic bright spot  Reuters

Libya's Presidential Council decreases salaries of government officials by 40% - The Libya ObserverLibya's Presidential Council decreases salaries of government officials by 40%  The Libya Observer

Libya: €2 million in humanitarian assistance to cover basic needs - EU NewsLibya: €2 million in humanitarian assistance to cover basic needs  EU News

SNC-Lavalin: Dictator Moammar Gadhafi approved settlement in Libya, witness says - Montreal GazetteSNC-Lavalin: Dictator Moammar Gadhafi approved settlement in Libya, witness says  Montreal Gazette

Sudan Border Closures With Libya, CAR Begin to Have Impact - VOA NewsSudan Border Closures With Libya, CAR Begin to Have Impact  VOA News

Passports and Nationality Department in Benghazi suspends work after attack on member staff - The Libya ObserverPassports and Nationality Department in Benghazi suspends work after attack on member staff  The Libya Observer

Expertise France hails its five diversification projects in Libya | - Libya HeraldExpertise France hails its five diversification projects in Libya |  Libya Herald

A Professors' Strike in Libya Reveals a Troubled University System - Al-Fanar MediaA Professors' Strike in Libya Reveals a Troubled University System  Al-Fanar Media

Reports of 'secret migrant deal' between Malta and Libyan authorities - InfoMigrantsReports of 'secret migrant deal' between Malta and Libyan authorities  InfoMigrants

EXCLUSIVE-Supplies of banknotes from Russia to east Libya accelerated this year -data - ReutersEXCLUSIVE-Supplies of banknotes from Russia to east Libya accelerated this year -data  Reuters

Libyan government says killed 16 east-based army soldiers - Xinhua | English.news.cn - XinhuaLibyan government says killed 16 east-based army soldiers - Xinhua | English.news.cn  Xinhua

Jordanian private hospitals call on their government to intervene in debt crisis with Libya - The Libya ObserverJordanian private hospitals call on their government to intervene in debt crisis with Libya  The Libya Observer

Gor name travelling squad for Libya... - Citizen TVGor name travelling squad for Libya...  Citizen TV

UN experts say airstrike on Libya migrant detention centre likely tied to Hifter allies - Malta Independent OnlineUN experts say airstrike on Libya migrant detention centre likely tied to Hifter allies  Malta Independent Online

UN envoy, Egyptian Foreign Minister discuss solutions to Libya's conflict - Libyan ExpressUN envoy, Egyptian Foreign Minister discuss solutions to Libya's conflict  Libyan Express

87 Muslim scholars, including Libya's Mufti, call for boycotting UAE - The Libya Observer87 Muslim scholars, including Libya's Mufti, call for boycotting UAE  The Libya Observer

ICC holds hearing to consider appeals of Saif al-Islam Gaddafi's defence - The Libya ObserverICC holds hearing to consider appeals of Saif al-Islam Gaddafi's defence  The Libya Observer

Libya's Central Bank governor urged to take measures against Russia-printed currency - The Libya ObserverLibya's Central Bank governor urged to take measures against Russia-printed currency  The Libya Observer

US outlines its support efforts for Libyan peace | - Libya HeraldUS outlines its support efforts for Libyan peace |  Libya Herald

Italy to renew deal with Libya to block migrants - Times of MaltaItaly to renew deal with Libya to block migrants  Times of Malta

Libya: Detained migrants and refugees face worse conditions after closure of Misrata center - Doctors Without BordersLibya: Detained migrants and refugees face worse conditions after closure of Misrata center  Doctors Without Borders

Malta signs secret migrants' interception deal with Libya - Libyan ExpressMalta signs secret migrants' interception deal with Libya  Libyan Express

Ahmad Benali: Libya captain wants stability on and off the pitch - BBC NewsAhmad Benali: Libya captain wants stability on and off the pitch  BBC News