Libya

Country Libya
Capital Tripoli
Continent Africa
Currency Libyan dinar(LYD)
Languages Arabic, Berber & Libyan Arabic

Information

Introduction

The Italians supplanted the Ottoman Turks in the area around Tripoli in 1911 and did not relinquish their hold until 1943 when defeated in World War II. Libya then passed to UN administration and achieved independence in 1951. Following a 1969 military coup, Col. Muammar Abu Minyar al-QADHAFI began to espouse his own political system, the Third Universal Theory. The system is a combination of socialism and Islam derived in part from tribal practices and is supposed to be implemented by the Libyan people themselves in a unique form of "direct democracy." QADHAFI has always seen himself as a revolutionary and visionary leader. He used oil funds during the 1970s and 1980s to promote his ideology outside Libya, supporting subversives and terrorists abroad to hasten the end of Marxism and capitalism. In addition, beginning in 1973, he engaged in military operations in northern Chad's Aozou Strip - to gain access to minerals and to use as a base of influence in Chadian politics - but was forced to retreat in 1987. UN sanctions in 1992 isolated QADHAFI politically following the downing of Pan AM Flight 103 over Lockerbie, Scotland. During the 1990s, QADHAFI began to rebuild his relationships with Europe. UN sanctions were suspended in April 1999 and finally lifted in September 2003 after Libya accepted responsibility for the Lockerbie bombing. In December 2003, Libya announced that it had agreed to reveal and end its programs to develop weapons of mass destruction and to renounce terrorism. QADHAFI has made significant strides in normalizing relations with Western nations since then. He has received various Western European leaders as well as many working-level and commercial delegations, and made his first trip to Western Europe in 15 years when he traveled to Brussels in April 2004. The US rescinded Libya's designation as a state sponsor of terrorism in June 2006. In January 2008, Libya assumed a nonpermanent seat on the UN Security Council for the 2008-09 term. In August 2008, the US and Libya signed a bilateral comprehensive claims settlement agreement to compensate claimants in both countries who allege injury or death at the hands of the other country, including the Lockerbie bombing, the LaBelle disco bombing, and the UTA 772 bombing. In October 2008, the US Government received $1.5 billion pursuant to the agreement to distribute to US national claimants, and as a result effectively normalized its bilateral relationship with Libya. The two countries then exchanged ambassadors for the first time since 1973 in January 2009. QADHAFI in February 2009 took over as chairman of the African Union for the 2009-10 term; in September 2009, a Libyan took over the year-long presidency of UN General Assembly.

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References

Libya - Wikipedia
Libya - CIA World Fact Book
Libya - BBC
Libya - Timeline - BBC

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Egypt and Libya’s tumultuous relationship since 1969 - The Africa ReportEgypt and Libya’s tumultuous relationship since 1969  The Africa Report

The next steps in Libya - Brookings InstitutionThe next steps in Libya  Brookings Institution

Talks may lead to end of blockade of Libyan oilfields - The GuardianTalks may lead to end of blockade of Libyan oilfields  The Guardian

Libya: Clearing Russian mercenaries becomes compulsory - Anadolu AgencyLibya: Clearing Russian mercenaries becomes compulsory  Anadolu Agency

Can Tunisia stay out of Libya war? - Al-MonitorCan Tunisia stay out of Libya war?  Al-Monitor

Libyan Mufti calls for resisting Russian 'invasion' - Anadolu AgencyLibyan Mufti calls for resisting Russian 'invasion'  Anadolu Agency

Libya: Aguila Saleh urges Egypt to intervene if Sirte attacked - Al Jazeera EnglishLibya: Aguila Saleh urges Egypt to intervene if Sirte attacked  Al Jazeera English

Who's Who in Libya's War? - Council on Foreign RelationsWho's Who in Libya's War?  Council on Foreign Relations

France freezes role in NATO Libya force amid Turkey tensions - Arab NewsFrance freezes role in NATO Libya force amid Turkey tensions  Arab News

Libya: Health Sector Bulletin (June 2020) - Libya - ReliefWebLibya: Health Sector Bulletin (June 2020) - Libya  ReliefWeb

Who’s Flying Those MiG-29s In Libya And Why Does It Matter? - ForbesWho’s Flying Those MiG-29s In Libya And Why Does It Matter?  Forbes

Libya: Mapping areas of military control | - Aljazeera.comLibya: Mapping areas of military control |  Aljazeera.com

France threatens Turkey with sanctions over Libya intervention - The NationalFrance threatens Turkey with sanctions over Libya intervention  The National

NATO shows signs of change in its Libya policy - Anadolu AgencyNATO shows signs of change in its Libya policy  Anadolu Agency

Libya conflict: GNA regains full control of Tripoli from Gen Haftar - BBC NewsLibya conflict: GNA regains full control of Tripoli from Gen Haftar  BBC News

Al-Mishri rejects Tunisian leader's remarks on Libya - Anadolu AgencyAl-Mishri rejects Tunisian leader's remarks on Libya  Anadolu Agency

Libya: Apparent War Crimes in Tripoli - Libya - ReliefWebLibya: Apparent War Crimes in Tripoli - Libya  ReliefWeb

Algeria steps up diplomacy in hopes of ending Libya's war - Al Jazeera EnglishAlgeria steps up diplomacy in hopes of ending Libya's war  Al Jazeera English

Libyan marks liberation of Gharyan from Haftar - Anadolu AgencyLibyan marks liberation of Gharyan from Haftar  Anadolu Agency

Libya's al-Sarraj calls for international support - Anadolu AgencyLibya's al-Sarraj calls for international support  Anadolu Agency

Libya’s proxy sponsors face a dilemma - Brookings InstitutionLibya’s proxy sponsors face a dilemma  Brookings Institution

Crude oil prices drop on prospect of returning Libyan supplies - Economic TimesCrude oil prices drop on prospect of returning Libyan supplies  Economic Times

Warning from Geneva: perpetrators of Libyan atrocities will be held accountable - swissinfo.chWarning from Geneva: perpetrators of Libyan atrocities will be held accountable  swissinfo.ch

Libyan official: Egypt's president 'beating the drums of war' - Al Jazeera EnglishLibyan official: Egypt's president 'beating the drums of war'  Al Jazeera English

Libya army captures Haftar's main supply line - Anadolu AgencyLibya army captures Haftar's main supply line  Anadolu Agency

UN's ex-Libya envoy slams 'hypocrisy' of Security Council members - FRANCE 24UN's ex-Libya envoy slams 'hypocrisy' of Security Council members  FRANCE 24

United Nations orders probe into human rights abuses in Libya - Al Jazeera EnglishUnited Nations orders probe into human rights abuses in Libya  Al Jazeera English

Greek FM voices support for political solution to Libyan crisis - Xinhua | English.news.cn - XinhuaGreek FM voices support for political solution to Libyan crisis - Xinhua | English.news.cn  Xinhua

Libya – Joint Statement by France, Germany and Italy (25 Jun. 2020) - France DiplomatieLibya – Joint Statement by France, Germany and Italy (25 Jun. 2020)  France Diplomatie

Libyan General Staff proposes formation of National Guard to contain armed factions - The Libya ObserverLibyan General Staff proposes formation of National Guard to contain armed factions  The Libya Observer

UN Warns of Risk to Civilians in Libya - Voice of AmericaUN Warns of Risk to Civilians in Libya  Voice of America

AFRICOM underlines strong cooperation with Libya gov't - Anadolu AgencyAFRICOM underlines strong cooperation with Libya gov't  Anadolu Agency

Turkey Has Eclipsed Emmanuel Macron's Libya Dreams - BloombergQuintTurkey Has Eclipsed Emmanuel Macron's Libya Dreams  BloombergQuint

Libya elected as vice president of 75th UN General Assembly - The Libya ObserverLibya elected as vice president of 75th UN General Assembly  The Libya Observer

At least six migrants died, 93 rescued off Libya's coast - Al Jazeera EnglishAt least six migrants died, 93 rescued off Libya's coast  Al Jazeera English

Egypt Warns Forces Fighting for Libya's Tripoli Government to Stay Out of Sirte - Voice of America (VOA)Egypt Warns Forces Fighting for Libya's Tripoli Government to Stay Out of Sirte  Voice of America (VOA)

Women, Peace and Security in Libyan context - Libya - ReliefWebWomen, Peace and Security in Libyan context - Libya  ReliefWeb

These Syrian militiamen were foes in their civil war. Now they are battling each other in Libya. - The Washington PostThese Syrian militiamen were foes in their civil war. Now they are battling each other in Libya.  The Washington Post

Understanding the Russian roulette in Libya - National HeraldUnderstanding the Russian roulette in Libya  National Herald

EU chief urges bloc to increase support for Libya mission - Al Jazeera EnglishEU chief urges bloc to increase support for Libya mission  Al Jazeera English

Turkey Seeks Diplomatic Gains After Risky Libya Military Intervention - Voice of America (VOA)Turkey Seeks Diplomatic Gains After Risky Libya Military Intervention  Voice of America (VOA)

Libya: 2 civilians killed by mines in Tripoli - Anadolu AgencyLibya: 2 civilians killed by mines in Tripoli  Anadolu Agency

Libyan army gears up to regain oil fields - Anadolu AgencyLibyan army gears up to regain oil fields  Anadolu Agency

The presence of Sudanese militias in Libya is destabilising for Sudan - Middle East MonitorThe presence of Sudanese militias in Libya is destabilising for Sudan  Middle East Monitor

Readout of the Secretary-General's phone call with Field Marshal Khalifa Belqasim Haftar, Commander of the Libyan National Army - Libya - ReliefWebReadout of the Secretary-General's phone call with Field Marshal Khalifa Belqasim Haftar, Commander of the Libyan National Army - Libya  ReliefWeb

Libya's largest oilfield resumes production - Anadolu AgencyLibya's largest oilfield resumes production  Anadolu Agency

Turkey rejects UN group's claims on activities in Libya - Anadolu AgencyTurkey rejects UN group's claims on activities in Libya  Anadolu Agency

Libyan gov't agrees to name new electricity chiefs after protest - Xinhua | English.news.cn - XinhuaLibyan gov't agrees to name new electricity chiefs after protest - Xinhua | English.news.cn  Xinhua

Libyan premier arrives in Algeria for talks - Anadolu AgencyLibyan premier arrives in Algeria for talks  Anadolu Agency

Turkey, Russia continue to work together for Libya ceasefire - Al Jazeera EnglishTurkey, Russia continue to work together for Libya ceasefire  Al Jazeera English

Libya's Messla oil field resumes, two field sources say - ReutersLibya's Messla oil field resumes, two field sources say  Reuters

Libya returns 194 asylum seekers to Tripoli - Anadolu AgencyLibya returns 194 asylum seekers to Tripoli  Anadolu Agency

'Horror' and 'shock' at Libya mass graves - The New Humanitarian'Horror' and 'shock' at Libya mass graves  The New Humanitarian

Libya: Landmines Left After Armed Group Withdraws - Human Rights WatchLibya: Landmines Left After Armed Group Withdraws  Human Rights Watch

Libya’s Civil War Has Turned a Corner, But It’s Far From Over - BloombergQuintLibya’s Civil War Has Turned a Corner, But It’s Far From Over  BloombergQuint

Libya: Haftar's landmines kill 7 people - Anadolu AgencyLibya: Haftar's landmines kill 7 people  Anadolu Agency

In Libyan Quagmire, Front Shifts East From Tripoli to Sirte - Jamestown - The Jamestown FoundationIn Libyan Quagmire, Front Shifts East From Tripoli to Sirte - Jamestown  The Jamestown Foundation

On surprise visit, Libya Tobruk-based parliament speaker in Algeria - Anadolu AgencyOn surprise visit, Libya Tobruk-based parliament speaker in Algeria  Anadolu Agency

Russia raises stakes with 'brazen' military intervention in Libyan conflict - CNNRussia raises stakes with 'brazen' military intervention in Libyan conflict  CNN

France suspends involvement in NATO naval operation off Libya amid tensions with Turkey - WBNG-TVFrance suspends involvement in NATO naval operation off Libya amid tensions with Turkey  WBNG-TV

Anadolu Agency accompanies Libyan army on Sirte front - Anadolu AgencyAnadolu Agency accompanies Libyan army on Sirte front  Anadolu Agency

Neville Gafa' calls out Foreign Minister's post on Libya - The Shift NewsNeville Gafa' calls out Foreign Minister's post on Libya  The Shift News

Abused in Libya and forced into prostitution back home: the nightmare of trying to reach Europe - EuronewsAbused in Libya and forced into prostitution back home: the nightmare of trying to reach Europe  Euronews

Art provides comfort and hope to Eritrean refugee in Libya - UNHCRArt provides comfort and hope to Eritrean refugee in Libya  UNHCR

France's support for Libya's Haftar is finally coming home to roost | Borzou Daragahi - The IndependentFrance's support for Libya's Haftar is finally coming home to roost | Borzou Daragahi  The Independent

Libya COVID-19 cases double in 14 days as violence increases, exacerbating existing threats facing vulnerable populations - Libya - ReliefWebLibya COVID-19 cases double in 14 days as violence increases, exacerbating existing threats facing vulnerable populations - Libya  ReliefWeb

Libya: COVID-19 erodes livelihoods already hard-hit by war - Libya - ReliefWebLibya: COVID-19 erodes livelihoods already hard-hit by war - Libya  ReliefWeb

Bodies of children and others found in Libyan town after LNA retreat, Red Crescent says - Reuters UKBodies of children and others found in Libyan town after LNA retreat, Red Crescent says  Reuters UK

Reading terror suspect came to UK as refugee from Libyan civil war - The GuardianReading terror suspect came to UK as refugee from Libyan civil war  The Guardian

Conflict and coronavirus COVID-19 adds up to a crisis in Libya | MSF - Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) InternationalConflict and coronavirus COVID-19 adds up to a crisis in Libya | MSF  Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) International

US Africa Command: 2000 Russian Wagner mercenaries fighting for Haftar in Libya - The Libya ObserverUS Africa Command: 2000 Russian Wagner mercenaries fighting for Haftar in Libya  The Libya Observer

IRC welcomes news that Libya ceasefire talks will resume - Libya - ReliefWebIRC welcomes news that Libya ceasefire talks will resume - Libya  ReliefWeb

'Turkey stands by Sarraj government, Libyan brothers' - Anadolu Agency'Turkey stands by Sarraj government, Libyan brothers'  Anadolu Agency

War in Libya: how did it start, who is involved and what happens next? - The GuardianWar in Libya: how did it start, who is involved and what happens next?  The Guardian

Civil War in Libya | Global Conflict Tracker - Council on Foreign RelationsCivil War in Libya | Global Conflict Tracker  Council on Foreign Relations

Libya: Video captures Haftar attack on civilians - Anadolu AgencyLibya: Video captures Haftar attack on civilians  Anadolu Agency

Joint statement on Libya - World Health OrganizationJoint statement on Libya  World Health Organization

Interpreting Haftar's gambit in Libya - Libya - ReliefWebInterpreting Haftar's gambit in Libya - Libya  ReliefWeb

‘Our Hearts Are Dead.’ After 9 Years of Civil War, Libyans Are Tired of Being Pawns in a Geopolitical Game of Chess - TIME‘Our Hearts Are Dead.’ After 9 Years of Civil War, Libyans Are Tired of Being Pawns in a Geopolitical Game of Chess  TIME

Libyan army takes district in Tripoli - Anadolu AgencyLibyan army takes district in Tripoli  Anadolu Agency

Libya: Annual report 2019 - Libya - ReliefWebLibya: Annual report 2019 - Libya  ReliefWeb

Libya's Haftar calls for support amid military losses - Anadolu AgencyLibya's Haftar calls for support amid military losses  Anadolu Agency

Libya: Tripoli gov't retakes three cities from Haftar's forces - Al Jazeera EnglishLibya: Tripoli gov't retakes three cities from Haftar's forces  Al Jazeera English

Libya: Foreign mercenary found dead south of Tripoli - Anadolu AgencyLibya: Foreign mercenary found dead south of Tripoli  Anadolu Agency

Libya conflict: Warring sides meet in Moscow for talks - BBC NewsLibya conflict: Warring sides meet in Moscow for talks  BBC News

Suspected military supplies pour into Libya as UN flounders - The GuardianSuspected military supplies pour into Libya as UN flounders  The Guardian

Libya civil war: UN envoy Salamé says foreign intervention must end - BBC NewsLibya civil war: UN envoy Salamé says foreign intervention must end  BBC News

Libya is Sliding Toward Partition - BloombergQuintLibya is Sliding Toward Partition  BloombergQuint

Libya conflict: Turkey confirms first soldiers killed - BBC NewsLibya conflict: Turkey confirms first soldiers killed  BBC News

Stabilization facility for Libya - Libya - ReliefWebStabilization facility for Libya - Libya  ReliefWeb

Protests demand Haftar stop attacks in Libya - Anadolu AgencyProtests demand Haftar stop attacks in Libya  Anadolu Agency

'Libya has right to reach agreement with any country' - Anadolu Agency'Libya has right to reach agreement with any country'  Anadolu Agency

Libya and its migrants confront new threats - Brookings InstitutionLibya and its migrants confront new threats  Brookings Institution

Libya: Haftar forces target ambulance in Misrata - Anadolu AgencyLibya: Haftar forces target ambulance in Misrata  Anadolu Agency

East Libya-based lawmakers reject Haftar's coup - Anadolu AgencyEast Libya-based lawmakers reject Haftar's coup  Anadolu Agency

The battle for Libya's al-Watiya airbase explained - Al Jazeera EnglishThe battle for Libya's al-Watiya airbase explained  Al Jazeera English

Libya conflict: Tripoli rocket attacks halt peace talks - BBC NewsLibya conflict: Tripoli rocket attacks halt peace talks  BBC News

Libya conflict: Haftar forces threaten to target civilian planes - BBC NewsLibya conflict: Haftar forces threaten to target civilian planes  BBC News

Haftar blocks UN flights landing in Libya - Anadolu AgencyHaftar blocks UN flights landing in Libya  Anadolu Agency

Libya in chaos as endless war rumbles on - BBC NewsLibya in chaos as endless war rumbles on  BBC News