Poland

Country Poland
Capital Warsaw
Continent Europe
Currency ZŇāoty(PLN)
Languages Polish & Kashubian

Information

Introduction

Poland is an ancient nation that was conceived near the middle of the 10th century. Its golden age occurred in the 16th century. During the following century, the strengthening of the gentry and internal disorders weakened the nation. In a series of agreements between 1772 and 1795, Russia, Prussia, and Austria partitioned Poland amongst themselves. Poland regained its independence in 1918 only to be overrun by Germany and the Soviet Union in World War II. It became a Soviet satellite state following the war, but its government was comparatively tolerant and progressive. Labor turmoil in 1980 led to the formation of the independent trade union "Solidarity" that over time became a political force and by 1990 had swept parliamentary elections and the presidency. A "shock therapy" program during the early 1990s enabled the country to transform its economy into one of the most robust in Central Europe, but Poland still faces the lingering challenges of high unemployment, underdeveloped and dilapidated infrastructure, and a poor rural underclass. Solidarity suffered a major defeat in the 2001 parliamentary elections when it failed to elect a single deputy to the lower house of Parliament, and the new leaders of the Solidarity Trade Union subsequently pledged to reduce the Trade Union's political role. Poland joined NATO in 1999 and the European Union in 2004. With its transformation to a democratic, market-oriented country largely completed, Poland is an increasingly active member of Euro-Atlantic organizations.

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References

Poland - Wikipedia
Poland - CIA World Fact Book
Poland - BBC
Poland - National Geographic
Poland - Timeline - BBC

Cities

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News Headlines

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Poland must not slide further into illiberalism - Financial TimesPoland must not slide further into illiberalism  Financial Times

Opinion: Poland solidifies its illiberal politics - DW (English)Opinion: Poland solidifies its illiberal politics  DW (English)

Poland's populist Law and Justice party win second term in power - The GuardianPoland's populist Law and Justice party win second term in power  The Guardian

Poland's ruling populists win again - Zlotys for tots win lots of votes - The EconomistPoland's ruling populists win again - Zlotys for tots win lots of votes  The Economist

Europe's Climate Push Won't Come Cheap - BloombergEurope's Climate Push Won't Come Cheap  Bloomberg

Election results give hope to opposition in Poland and Hungary - The GuardianElection results give hope to opposition in Poland and Hungary  The Guardian

In Poland, big handouts and gay-bashing win votes - The EconomistIn Poland, big handouts and gay-bashing win votes  The Economist

After Poland, No Democracy Is Safe - The AtlanticAfter Poland, No Democracy Is Safe  The Atlantic

America pours a thousand more troops into Poland - The EconomistAmerica pours a thousand more troops into Poland  The Economist

Populists in Poland Are Purging Prosecutors Under the Guise of Judicial Reform - Foreign PolicyPopulists in Poland Are Purging Prosecutors Under the Guise of Judicial Reform  Foreign Policy

As An Election Nears In Poland, Church And State Are A Popular Combination - NPRAs An Election Nears In Poland, Church And State Are A Popular Combination  NPR

EU challenges Poland over judicial independence - The GuardianEU challenges Poland over judicial independence  The Guardian

Democracy in Poland Is in Mortal Danger - The AtlanticDemocracy in Poland Is in Mortal Danger  The Atlantic

Polandís Nationalists Underwhelmed by Historic Election Win - BloombergPolandís Nationalists Underwhelmed by Historic Election Win  Bloomberg

Poland's Populist Turn - Washington PostPoland's Populist Turn  Washington Post

Trump Abandoned the Kurds. Poland and the Baltics Could Be Next. - Foreign PolicyTrump Abandoned the Kurds. Poland and the Baltics Could Be Next.  Foreign Policy

Polandís State Media Is Governmentís Biggest Booster Before Election - The New York TimesPolandís State Media Is Governmentís Biggest Booster Before Election  The New York Times

Poland after the election: New headaches for the EU - European Council on Foreign RelationsPoland after the election: New headaches for the EU  European Council on Foreign Relations

Poland: Law criminalizing sexuality education ďrecklessly retrogressiveĒ - Amnesty InternationalPoland: Law criminalizing sexuality education ďrecklessly retrogressiveĒ  Amnesty International

Polandís drift to right divides young male and female voters - The GuardianPolandís drift to right divides young male and female voters  The Guardian

Europeís Poland puzzle - POLITICO.euEuropeís Poland puzzle  POLITICO.eu

Poland wants fresh EU money to back climate neutrality goal - EURACTIVPoland wants fresh EU money to back climate neutrality goal  EURACTIV

Poland's Populist Party Keeps Winning Thanks to Its Welfare State Model - Foreign PolicyPoland's Populist Party Keeps Winning Thanks to Its Welfare State Model  Foreign Policy

Family, faith, flag: the religious right and the battle for Poland's soul - The GuardianFamily, faith, flag: the religious right and the battle for Poland's soul  The Guardian

Polandís ruling party pledges big minimum wage rise to woo voters - Financial TimesPolandís ruling party pledges big minimum wage rise to woo voters  Financial Times

For Poland, Nobel Prize in Literature Is Cause for Conflict as Much as Congratulation - The New York TimesFor Poland, Nobel Prize in Literature Is Cause for Conflict as Much as Congratulation  The New York Times

Poland election: the unfinished counter-revolution - Financial TimesPoland election: the unfinished counter-revolution  Financial Times

Polandís economic miracle wonít last - POLITICO.euPolandís economic miracle wonít last  POLITICO.eu

Opposition parties face 'existential' battle in Poland and Hungary - The GuardianOpposition parties face 'existential' battle in Poland and Hungary  The Guardian

Poland defies Brussels by vowing to stick to coal - Financial TimesPoland defies Brussels by vowing to stick to coal  Financial Times

Poland Election: Jaroslaw Kaczynski's Rise to Power After Tragedy - BloombergPoland Election: Jaroslaw Kaczynski's Rise to Power After Tragedy  Bloomberg

The Latest: Poland says Brexit vote a delay, not a rejection - CanadianBusiness.comThe Latest: Poland says Brexit vote a delay, not a rejection  CanadianBusiness.com

Poland mortgages: Homeowners win fight over Swiss Franc loans - BBC NewsPoland mortgages: Homeowners win fight over Swiss Franc loans  BBC News

Poland's Conservative Ruling Party Declares Victory - NewsmaxPoland's Conservative Ruling Party Declares Victory  Newsmax

Venezuela, Poland and Sudan amongst 14 new Human Rights Council members - UN NewsVenezuela, Poland and Sudan amongst 14 new Human Rights Council members  UN News

Google will soon open a cloud region in Poland - TechCrunchGoogle will soon open a cloud region in Poland  TechCrunch

Why Polandís illiberal ruling party is cruising toward reelection - The Christian Science MonitorWhy Polandís illiberal ruling party is cruising toward reelection  The Christian Science Monitor

Polandís democracy is not a priority for many of its voters - The Irish TimesPolandís democracy is not a priority for many of its voters  The Irish Times

Poland's Diminishing Influence - Carnegie EuropePoland's Diminishing Influence  Carnegie Europe

In defense of Polandís ruling party - POLITICO.euIn defense of Polandís ruling party  POLITICO.eu

Polish election: Leader targets gay rights as threat to society - BBC NewsPolish election: Leader targets gay rights as threat to society  BBC News

Day-VII Architecture highlights the variety of Polish communist-era churches - DezeenDay-VII Architecture highlights the variety of Polish communist-era churches  Dezeen

Trump nominates Poland for visa waiver programme - Financial TimesTrump nominates Poland for visa waiver programme  Financial Times

For Ukrainians in Poland, jobs but no security - POLITICO.euFor Ukrainians in Poland, jobs but no security  POLITICO.eu

Poland's ruling right-wing party banks on child subsidy to win election - ReutersPoland's ruling right-wing party banks on child subsidy to win election  Reuters

Poland's government to criminalise sex education - EUobserverPoland's government to criminalise sex education  EUobserver

PiS Is Tapping Centuries-Old Divides Between Poland's East and West in This Weekend's Elections - Foreign PolicyPiS Is Tapping Centuries-Old Divides Between Poland's East and West in This Weekend's Elections  Foreign Policy

How Polandís wild ride out of communism remains an election faultline - Financial TimesHow Polandís wild ride out of communism remains an election faultline  Financial Times

How Polandís ruling party won the internet - POLITICO.euHow Polandís ruling party won the internet  POLITICO.eu

Fight the power: why climate activists are suing Europeís biggest coal plant - The GuardianFight the power: why climate activists are suing Europeís biggest coal plant  The Guardian

In Poland, politics cuts across the dinner table - POLITICO.euIn Poland, politics cuts across the dinner table  POLITICO.eu

In Poland's Upcoming Election, the Law and Justice Party Is Demonizing the LGBT Community to Win - Foreign PolicyIn Poland's Upcoming Election, the Law and Justice Party Is Demonizing the LGBT Community to Win  Foreign Policy

Nobel prize winner Tokarczuk calls for democracy revival in Poland - ReutersNobel prize winner Tokarczuk calls for democracy revival in Poland  Reuters

Poland's PiS wins narrow majority in parliament: final vote count - ReutersPoland's PiS wins narrow majority in parliament: final vote count  Reuters

Poland's ruling party on course to retain majority in general election, early results suggest - The TelegraphPoland's ruling party on course to retain majority in general election, early results suggest  The Telegraph

Poland's ruling nationalists ahead - exit poll - RTE.iePoland's ruling nationalists ahead - exit poll  RTE.ie

Mixing Politics and Piety, a Conservative Priest Seeks to Shape Polandís Future - The New York TimesMixing Politics and Piety, a Conservative Priest Seeks to Shape Polandís Future  The New York Times

Kaczynskiís last hurrah - POLITICO.euKaczynskiís last hurrah  POLITICO.eu

Neolithic Cemetery Excavated in Poland - ArchaeologyNeolithic Cemetery Excavated in Poland  Archaeology

Poland's ruling PiS vows to boost public healthcare ahead of vote - ReutersPoland's ruling PiS vows to boost public healthcare ahead of vote  Reuters

US, Polish presidents sign pact to boost American military presence in Poland - DefenseNews.comUS, Polish presidents sign pact to boost American military presence in Poland  DefenseNews.com

Has Poland's Government Become a Threat to Business? - BloombergHas Poland's Government Become a Threat to Business?  Bloomberg

Pride parades in Poland prove flashpoint ahead of general election - ReutersPride parades in Poland prove flashpoint ahead of general election  Reuters

Perception and politics Ė the case of Poland: coping with political apparitions - Open DemocracyPerception and politics Ė the case of Poland: coping with political apparitions  Open Democracy

Euro 2020 roundup: Russia and Poland qualify as 10-man Germany win - The GuardianEuro 2020 roundup: Russia and Poland qualify as 10-man Germany win  The Guardian

Why Poland Really Needs the Patriot Missile Defense System (Think Russia) - The National Interest OnlineWhy Poland Really Needs the Patriot Missile Defense System (Think Russia)  The National Interest Online

Poland's double-game on defence matters - EURACTIVPoland's double-game on defence matters  EURACTIV

Poland's European Commission candidate gets fraud reprieve - DW (English)Poland's European Commission candidate gets fraud reprieve  DW (English)

EU showdown: Poland's ruling party election victory could reignite judicial row with EU - Express.co.ukEU showdown: Poland's ruling party election victory could reignite judicial row with EU  Express.co.uk

Poland's ruling party has 40% support before Oct.13 vote - Reuters poll - ReutersPoland's ruling party has 40% support before Oct.13 vote - Reuters poll  Reuters

U-15 Boys' National Team Heads To Poland For UEFA Development Tournament - U.S. SoccerU-15 Boys' National Team Heads To Poland For UEFA Development Tournament  U.S. Soccer

Polandís Ruling Conservative Party Wins General Election - VOA NewsPolandís Ruling Conservative Party Wins General Election  VOA News

Denial: How Moscow Portrays Its Occupation Of Poland And The Baltic States - Radio Free Europe/ Radio LibertyDenial: How Moscow Portrays Its Occupation Of Poland And The Baltic States  Radio Free Europe/ Radio Liberty

As Poland's election heats up, so does anti-LGBTQ rhetoric. Why? - The Christian Science MonitorAs Poland's election heats up, so does anti-LGBTQ rhetoric. Why?  The Christian Science Monitor

Polandís Backing Wind Power in the Heart of Coal Country - BloombergPolandís Backing Wind Power in the Heart of Coal Country  Bloomberg

Polandís Ruling Party Puts an Extraordinary Museum of Polish-Jewish History Into Limbo - The New YorkerPolandís Ruling Party Puts an Extraordinary Museum of Polish-Jewish History Into Limbo  The New Yorker

Poland's PiS leader sees bills delayed in upper house of parliament - ReutersPoland's PiS leader sees bills delayed in upper house of parliament  Reuters

Late goal lifts Poland boys over Canfield, 2-1 | News, Sports, Jobs - Youngstown VindicatorLate goal lifts Poland boys over Canfield, 2-1 | News, Sports, Jobs  Youngstown Vindicator

Poland needs 700-900 billion euros to reach zero emissions - minister - ReutersPoland needs 700-900 billion euros to reach zero emissions - minister  Reuters

Poland's Ministry of Culture Again Accused of Trying to Control Progressive Institution - HyperallergicPoland's Ministry of Culture Again Accused of Trying to Control Progressive Institution  Hyperallergic

Albanian who rescued Jews during Holocaust to be honored in Poland - The Times of IsraelAlbanian who rescued Jews during Holocaust to be honored in Poland  The Times of Israel

INSIGHT: PolandóEU Quick Fixes and Call-off Stock from 2020 - Bloomberg TaxINSIGHT: PolandóEU Quick Fixes and Call-off Stock from 2020  Bloomberg Tax

Dogged determination lifts Poland | News, Sports, Jobs - Youngstown VindicatorDogged determination lifts Poland | News, Sports, Jobs  Youngstown Vindicator

Bayern Munichís Robert Lewandowski and Poland qualify for Euro 2020! - Bavarian Football WorksBayern Munichís Robert Lewandowski and Poland qualify for Euro 2020!  Bavarian Football Works

Poland's PiS mulls personnel changes to energy brief in new government - ReutersPoland's PiS mulls personnel changes to energy brief in new government  Reuters

To fend off the left, conservatives should look to Poland - Catholic Herald OnlineTo fend off the left, conservatives should look to Poland  Catholic Herald Online

European Qualifiers: Poland and Russia book Euro 2020 places - Sky SportsEuropean Qualifiers: Poland and Russia book Euro 2020 places  Sky Sports

ING Poland looks to euros after green covereds - GlobalCapitalING Poland looks to euros after green covereds  GlobalCapital

Poland U19s 2-5 England U18s in Opole, Poland - The FAPoland U19s 2-5 England U18s in Opole, Poland  The FA

Steiner meets Kubica sponsor in Poland - GrandPrixSteiner meets Kubica sponsor in Poland  GrandPrix

The Poignant Wartime Diary of a Jewish Teenager Living in Poland Has Been Published in English - Smithsonian.comThe Poignant Wartime Diary of a Jewish Teenager Living in Poland Has Been Published in English  Smithsonian.com

Poland invited to Ukraine to search for remains of Soviet regime victims - The First NewsPoland invited to Ukraine to search for remains of Soviet regime victims  The First News

Football: Freeport soars past Poland - Lewiston Sun JournalFootball: Freeport soars past Poland  Lewiston Sun Journal

Poland wants fair EU budget - PM after EU summit - The First NewsPoland wants fair EU budget - PM after EU summit  The First News

Poland's welfare index up in October - BIEC - The First NewsPoland's welfare index up in October - BIEC  The First News

Poland has set up a scouting network to identify the best footballers in Britainís 1million-strong Polish community - iNewsPoland has set up a scouting network to identify the best footballers in Britainís 1million-strong Polish community  iNews

Poland's 'vague' nominee flops in EU hearing - EUobserverPoland's 'vague' nominee flops in EU hearing  EUobserver

Poland's election features a confident right-wing ruling party despite abortion, LGBT debates - CBC.caPoland's election features a confident right-wing ruling party despite abortion, LGBT debates  CBC.ca

Maciej Wocī named Managing Director, Sony Music Entertainment Poland and Eastern Europe - Music Business WorldwideMaciej Wocī named Managing Director, Sony Music Entertainment Poland and Eastern Europe  Music Business Worldwide

Woman, 18, Visiting Chicago From Poland Had To Relearn How To Walk And Talk After Brutal West Town Rape, Prosecutors Say - Block Club ChicagoWoman, 18, Visiting Chicago From Poland Had To Relearn How To Walk And Talk After Brutal West Town Rape, Prosecutors Say  Block Club Chicago