Timor-Leste

Country Timor-leste
Capital Dili
Continent East & Southeast Asia
Currency United States dollar(USD)
Languages Portuguese, Tetum, Indonesian & English

Information

Introduction

The Portuguese began to trade with the island of Timor in the early 16th century and colonized it in mid-century. Skirmishing with the Dutch in the region eventually resulted in an 1859 treaty in which Portugal ceded the western portion of the island. Imperial Japan occupied Portuguese Timor from 1942 to 1945, but Portugal resumed colonial authority after the Japanese defeat in World War II. East Timor declared itself independent from Portugal on 28 November 1975 and was invaded and occupied by Indonesian forces nine days later. It was incorporated into Indonesia in July 1976 as the province of Timor Timur (East Timor). An unsuccessful campaign of pacification followed over the next two decades, during which an estimated 100,000 to 250,000 individuals lost their lives. On 30 August 1999, in a UN-supervised popular referendum, an overwhelming majority of the people of Timor-Leste voted for independence from Indonesia. Between the referendum and the arrival of a multinational peacekeeping force in late September 1999, anti-independence Timorese militias - organized and supported by the Indonesian military - commenced a large-scale, scorched-earth campaign of retribution. The militias killed approximately 1,400 Timorese and forcibly pushed 300,000 people into western Timor as refugees. The majority of the country's infrastructure, including homes, irrigation systems, water supply systems, and schools, and nearly 100% of the country's electrical grid were destroyed. On 20 September 1999, the Australian-led peacekeeping troops of the International Force for East Timor (INTERFET) deployed to the country and brought the violence to an end. On 20 May 2002, Timor-Leste was internationally recognized as an independent state. In late April 2006, internal tensions threatened the new nation's security when a military strike led to violence and a near breakdown of law and order. At Dili's request, an Australian-led International Stabilization Force (ISF) deployed to Timor-Leste in late May. In August, the UN Security Council established the UN Integrated Mission in Timor-Leste (UNMIT), which included an authorized police presence of over 1,600 personnel. The ISF and UNMIT restored stability, allowing for presidential and parliamentary elections in April and June 2007 in a largely peaceful atmosphere. In February 2008, a rebel group staged an unsuccessful attack against the president and prime minister. The ringleader was killed in the attack and the majority of the rebels surrendered in April 2008. Since the unsuccessful attacks the government has enjoyed one of its longest periods of post-independence stability.

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References

Timor-Leste - Wikipedia
Timor-Leste - CIA World Fact Book
Timor-Leste - BBC
Timor-Leste - Timeline - BBC

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Timor-Leste's Corruption Challenge - The Diplomat

The Diplomat

Timor-Leste's Corruption Challenge
The Diplomat
Through the fresh election held on May 12, Timor-Leste has for the time being put an end to nearly half a year of political impasse. The Aliança de Mudança para o Progresso (AMP), led by former Timorese Presidents Xanana Gusmão and Taur Matan Ruak, ...



Timor-Leste hero Xanana Gusmão heads back into power - The Guardian

The Guardian

Timor-Leste hero Xanana Gusmão heads back into power
The Guardian
Timor-Leste independence hero Xanana Gusmão is expected to be appointed prime minister again after the country's second parliamentary election in less than a year. Gusmão led a coalition of opposition parties that has secured more than 49.5% of the ...
Tense wait after fractious Timor-Leste hustingsThe Straits Times
For Timor-Leste, Another Election and Hopes for an End to Crippling DeadlockThe Wire
Resistance leader Xanana Gusmao wins Timor-Leste pollUCA News
Asia Pacific Report -IHS Jane's 360
all 81 news articles »


Timor-Leste Finally Has a Government. Now What? - The Diplomat

The Diplomat

Timor-Leste Finally Has a Government. Now What?
The Diplomat
After nearly a year of political deadlock resulting from a minority government, and a divisive political campaign, Timor-Leste is set to have a stable government after an early election, held on May 12. The forthcoming government will face an uneasy ...



Timor-Leste election: the generation gap - The Interpreter

The Interpreter

Timor-Leste election: the generation gap
The Interpreter
After ten months of political gridlock and one dissolved parliament, Saturday's decisive parliamentary election result represents one kind of victory for Timor-Leste's fledgling democracy. Winning an unusual outright majority of 34 seats in the 65-seat ...
Timor-Leste finally has a government. But what happens now?Asia Pacific Report
Timor-Leste's new leaders warn presidentUCA News

all 3 news articles »


Timor-Leste: A Nation Waiting for a Government - The Diplomat

The Diplomat

Timor-Leste: A Nation Waiting for a Government
The Diplomat
Fretilin, the former guerilla movement that became a political party after Timor-Leste gained independence in 2002, had the most votes at 29.7 percent, beating out rival CNRT by about a thousand votes or 0.02 percent. Fretilin formed a minority ...



Timor-Leste's Forgotten Female Rebels - The Diplomat

The Diplomat

Timor-Leste's Forgotten Female Rebels
The Diplomat
DILI — Timor Leste headed to the polls on May 12 in its second general election in as many years, with the opposition coalition of parties led by the National Congress for Timorese Reconstruction (CNRT) claiming victory. Over six months of political ...



Timor-Leste's incredible marine life – in pictures - The Guardian

The Guardian

Timor-Leste's incredible marine life – in pictures
The Guardian
Situated in the heart of the 'coral triangle', this young nation boasts some of the most biodiverse waters in the world. As it emerges from years of unrest, it now faces the challenge of protecting its coasts, and the communities that rely on them, in ...



Timor Leste gears up for election after violence-hit campaign - The Straits Times

The Straits Times

Timor Leste gears up for election after violence-hit campaign
The Straits Times
DILI (AFP) - Timor Leste is set to hold weekend elections after a campaign marred by violence and political mudslinging as the impoverished country struggles to buoy its oil-dependent economy. It will be the second general election in less than a year ...
Review: Nation building and national identity in Timor LesteInside Indonesia

all 6 news articles »


Crocodiles: The deadly totems of Timor-Leste - Radio New Zealand

Radio New Zealand

Crocodiles: The deadly totems of Timor-Leste
Radio New Zealand
A country under siege for decades, Timor-Leste has more than its fair share of challenges as it seeks to develop, recover and move forward after decades of struggle under its occupation by Indonesia that only ended in 2001. Some of the key problems ...



A democratic coup in Timor-Leste - UCA News

UCA News

A democratic coup in Timor-Leste
UCA News
This picture taken in Dili on May 8, shows Xanana Gusmao delivering a campaign speech in Dili. Timor-Leste is set to hold weekend elections after a campaign marred by mudslinging and violence. (Photo by Valentino Dariell De Sousa/AFP) ...

and more »