Iran

Country Iran
Capital Tehran
Continent Asia
Currency Rial(IRR)
Languages Persian, Azerbaijani, Kurdish, Lurish, Gilaki, Balochi, Mazandarani, Arabic, Turkmen, Armenian & Georgian

Information

Introduction

Known as Persia until 1935, Iran became an Islamic republic in 1979 after the ruling monarchy was overthrown and Shah Mohammad Reza PAHLAVI was forced into exile. Conservative clerical forces established a theocratic system of government with ultimate political authority vested in a learned religious scholar referred to commonly as the Supreme Leader who, according to the constitution, is accountable only to the Assembly of Experts - a popularly elected 86-member body of clerics. US-Iranian relations have been strained since a group of Iranian students seized the US Embassy in Tehran on 4 November 1979 and held it until 20 January 1981. During 1980-88, Iran fought a bloody, indecisive war with Iraq that eventually expanded into the Persian Gulf and led to clashes between US Navy and Iranian military forces between 1987 and 1988. Iran has been designated a state sponsor of terrorism for its activities in Lebanon and elsewhere in the world and remains subject to US, UN, and EU economic sanctions and export controls because of its continued involvement in terrorism and its nuclear weapons ambitions. Following the election of reformer Hojjat ol-Eslam Mohammad KHATAMI as president in 1997 and a reformist Majles (legislature) in 2000, a campaign to foster political reform in response to popular dissatisfaction was initiated. The movement floundered as conservative politicians, through the control of unelected institutions, prevented reform measures from being enacted and increased repressive measures. Starting with nationwide municipal elections in 2003 and continuing through Majles elections in 2004, conservatives reestablished control over Iran's elected government institutions, which culminated with the August 2005 inauguration of hardliner Mahmud AHMADI-NEJAD as president. His controversial reelection in June 2009 sparked nationwide protests over allegations of electoral fraud. The UN Security Council has passed a number of resolutions (1696 in July 2006, 1737 in December 2006, 1747 in March 2007, 1803 in March 2008, and 1835 in September 2008) calling for Iran to suspend its uranium enrichment and reprocessing activities and comply with its IAEA obligations and responsibilities. Resolutions 1737, 1477, and 1803 subject a number of Iranian individuals and entities involved in Iran's nuclear and ballistic missile programs to sanctions. Additionally, several Iranian entities are subject to US sanctions under Executive Order 13382 designations for proliferation activities and EO 13224 designations for support of terrorism.

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References

Iran - Wikipedia
Iran - CIA World Fact Book
Iran - BBC
Iran - National Geographic
Iran - Timeline - BBC

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Iran nuclear attack: Mystery surrounds nuclear sabotage at Natanz - BBC News
  1. Iran nuclear attack: Mystery surrounds nuclear sabotage at Natanz  BBC News
  2. Iran blames Israel for nuclear facility incident, vows revenge Livemint  Mint
  3. Save the deal: On U.S. and Iran resolving nuclear crisis  The Hindu
  4. After Nuclear Site Blackout, Thunder From Iran, and Silence From U.S.  The New York Times
  5. US distances itself from alleged attack on Iran’s nuclear site  Financial Times
  6. View Full coverage on Google News


'First step:' US, Iran to begin indirect nuclear-limit talks - Associated Press
  1. 'First step:' US, Iran to begin indirect nuclear-limit talks  Associated Press
  2. US: Iran talks unlikely to lead to an ‘immediate breakthrough’  Al Jazeera English
  3. The Iran Nuclear Talks, Explained  The New York Times
  4. US and Iran Agree to Resume Talks on Nuclear Deal - WSJ  The Wall Street Journal
  5. Fresh Iran nuclear talks next week in push for US return  Arab News
  6. View Full coverage on Google News


China’s high stakes engagement with Iran - Financial TimesChina’s high stakes engagement with Iran  Financial Times

Israel made 'very bad gamble' at nuclear plant: Iran - Times of IndiaIsrael made 'very bad gamble' at nuclear plant: Iran  Times of India

Iranian TV action thriller delivers warning to Zarif - Financial TimesIranian TV action thriller delivers warning to Zarif  Financial Times

Israeli sabotage won’t stop Iran’s nuclear ambitions. Only the nuclear deal can do that. - The Washington PostIsraeli sabotage won’t stop Iran’s nuclear ambitions. Only the nuclear deal can do that.  The Washington Post

Future ties at stake as South Korean PM visits Iran - Al Jazeera EnglishFuture ties at stake as South Korean PM visits Iran  Al Jazeera English

EU sanctions elite Iran commander over 2019 protests - Al Jazeera EnglishEU sanctions elite Iran commander over 2019 protests  Al Jazeera English

Analysis: Attack on Iran ship off Yemen escalates shadow war - Associated PressAnalysis: Attack on Iran ship off Yemen escalates shadow war  Associated Press

Iran says initial nuclear talks with world powers ‘constructive’ - Al Jazeera EnglishIran says initial nuclear talks with world powers ‘constructive’  Al Jazeera English

Iran orders 10-day shutdown amid fourth wave of coronavirus pandemic - ReutersIran orders 10-day shutdown amid fourth wave of coronavirus pandemic  Reuters

'The Beautiful Dreams That Are Burnt': Portraits From Iran Under Sanctions - NPR'The Beautiful Dreams That Are Burnt': Portraits From Iran Under Sanctions  NPR

$400 bn deal an eye-catcher. But Iran is just a square in China’s geopolitical chessboard - ThePrint$400 bn deal an eye-catcher. But Iran is just a square in China’s geopolitical chessboard  ThePrint

Returning To The Iran Nuclear Deal Is Essential For Biden's Foreign Policy Agenda - NPRReturning To The Iran Nuclear Deal Is Essential For Biden's Foreign Policy Agenda  NPR

US 'Monitoring' as Iran Sends Fuel Tankers to Venezuela in Defiance of Sanctions - Voice of AmericaUS 'Monitoring' as Iran Sends Fuel Tankers to Venezuela in Defiance of Sanctions  Voice of America

3 Years Later, A Prisoner's Family Still Awaits His Return From Iran - NPR3 Years Later, A Prisoner's Family Still Awaits His Return From Iran  NPR

Iran Releases South Korean Oil Tanker - The New York TimesIran Releases South Korean Oil Tanker  The New York Times

India is now a key arena for Iran’s proxy war against Israel - HaaretzIndia is now a key arena for Iran’s proxy war against Israel  Haaretz

Iranian leaders pressed to disclose details of 25-year China pact - The GuardianIranian leaders pressed to disclose details of 25-year China pact  The Guardian

Is Clubhouse boosting democracy in Iran? - Al Jazeera EnglishIs Clubhouse boosting democracy in Iran?  Al Jazeera English

How Iranian Phantoms pulled off one of the most daring airstrikes in recent memory - Atlantic CouncilHow Iranian Phantoms pulled off one of the most daring airstrikes in recent memory  Atlantic Council

Iran: HE stakeholders call for release of Swedish-Iranian scientist - The PIE NewsIran: HE stakeholders call for release of Swedish-Iranian scientist  The PIE News

How to Win the Cold War With Iran - The AtlanticHow to Win the Cold War With Iran  The Atlantic

Iran's online anti-government protests gain momentum - Arab NewsIran's online anti-government protests gain momentum  Arab News

Inside Iran's torture prisons: Tehran quick to jail those with pro-Israel ties - Fox NewsInside Iran's torture prisons: Tehran quick to jail those with pro-Israel ties  Fox News

Iran arrests 'Israeli spy', others in touch with foreign intelligence: Iranian media - ReutersIran arrests 'Israeli spy', others in touch with foreign intelligence: Iranian media  Reuters

Iran’s Khamenei reiterates nuclear deal stance in new year speech - Al Jazeera EnglishIran’s Khamenei reiterates nuclear deal stance in new year speech  Al Jazeera English

Iran sets coronavirus infection record for 3rd straight day - Associated PressIran sets coronavirus infection record for 3rd straight day  Associated Press

US warns China it will enforce sanctions on Iran oil shipments - Financial TimesUS warns China it will enforce sanctions on Iran oil shipments  Financial Times

apNews Iran prosecutor says 10 indicted for Ukraine plane shootdown - The Associated PressapNews Iran prosecutor says 10 indicted for Ukraine plane shootdown  The Associated Press

Iran's Rulers Silent on Uncertain Electoral Fate of Israel's PM Netanyahu - Voice of AmericaIran's Rulers Silent on Uncertain Electoral Fate of Israel's PM Netanyahu  Voice of America

Iranian Proxy Attacks on Americans 'Not Helping Climate in US' for Reviving Iran Talks, US Envoy Says - Voice of AmericaIranian Proxy Attacks on Americans 'Not Helping Climate in US' for Reviving Iran Talks, US Envoy Says  Voice of America

Why would anyone—including Mohammad Javad Zarif—want to be Iran's president? - Atlantic CouncilWhy would anyone—including Mohammad Javad Zarif—want to be Iran's president?  Atlantic Council

Iran adds advanced machines enriching underground at Natanz: IAEA - ReutersIran adds advanced machines enriching underground at Natanz: IAEA  Reuters

Iran reveals underground 'missile city' as regional tensions rise - CNBCIran reveals underground 'missile city' as regional tensions rise  CNBC

Iran's Coronavirus Cases Spike as Millions Travel During Holiday - BloombergIran's Coronavirus Cases Spike as Millions Travel During Holiday  Bloomberg

Israel’s Shadow War With Iran Moves Out to Sea - The New York TimesIsrael’s Shadow War With Iran Moves Out to Sea  The New York Times

‘Human error’: Inside Iran’s report on downing of Ukraine plane - Al Jazeera English‘Human error’: Inside Iran’s report on downing of Ukraine plane  Al Jazeera English

American man held in Iran marks 2,000 days in detention - CNNAmerican man held in Iran marks 2,000 days in detention  CNN

Biden’s window with Iran is starting to close - The Washington PostBiden’s window with Iran is starting to close  The Washington Post

Iranian Oil Surge to China Hurts OPEC Efforts to Tighten Supply - BloombergIranian Oil Surge to China Hurts OPEC Efforts to Tighten Supply  Bloomberg

US Envoy Contrasts Biden's Criticism of Iran's Poor Human Rights Record with Trump Approach - Voice of AmericaUS Envoy Contrasts Biden's Criticism of Iran's Poor Human Rights Record with Trump Approach  Voice of America

Iran further breaches nuclear deal as talks with the US near 'impasse’ - The Jerusalem PostIran further breaches nuclear deal as talks with the US near 'impasse’  The Jerusalem Post

Iranian Nationals Charged with Conspiring to Evade U.S. Sanctions on Iran by Disguising $300 Million in Transactions Over Two Decades - Department of JusticeIranian Nationals Charged with Conspiring to Evade U.S. Sanctions on Iran by Disguising $300 Million in Transactions Over Two Decades  Department of Justice

Opinion | How Sanctions Hurt Iranian Women - The New York TimesOpinion | How Sanctions Hurt Iranian Women  The New York Times

Iran’s Zarif slams UK ‘hypocrisy’ over nuclear warhead plan - Al Jazeera EnglishIran’s Zarif slams UK ‘hypocrisy’ over nuclear warhead plan  Al Jazeera English

China Buys More Iranian and Venezuelan Oil, in a Test for Biden - The Wall Street JournalChina Buys More Iranian and Venezuelan Oil, in a Test for Biden  The Wall Street Journal

[AP] AP sources: Iran threatens US Army post and top general - Associated Press[AP] AP sources: Iran threatens US Army post and top general  Associated Press

Iran's New Missile Corvette Could Reshape IRGC Naval Doctrine - USNI News - USNI NewsIran's New Missile Corvette Could Reshape IRGC Naval Doctrine - USNI News  USNI News

Iranian Government Removes Iran Air From Sale - Simple FlyingIranian Government Removes Iran Air From Sale  Simple Flying

Iran's rivalling power centres are creating havoc in Iraq - Middle East EyeIran's rivalling power centres are creating havoc in Iraq  Middle East Eye

Israel attacked dozens of Iranian tankers, Tehran lost billions - HaaretzIsrael attacked dozens of Iranian tankers, Tehran lost billions  Haaretz

Russia and Iran tried to interfere with 2020 election, U.S. intelligence agencies say - CNBCRussia and Iran tried to interfere with 2020 election, U.S. intelligence agencies say  CNBC

Iran guided Israeli embassy blast through local module, upsets India: Officials - Hindustan TimesIran guided Israeli embassy blast through local module, upsets India: Officials  Hindustan Times

Iran will lose the battle, but win the war - Brookings InstitutionIran will lose the battle, but win the war  Brookings Institution

Assassination in Iran Threatens Fate of Nuclear Deal - The New York TimesAssassination in Iran Threatens Fate of Nuclear Deal  The New York Times

On Iran, it is decision time for Biden - The HinduOn Iran, it is decision time for Biden  The Hindu

Iran is not looking for a war with America - ThePrintIran is not looking for a war with America  ThePrint

Iran Delays Retaliation Over Scientist’s Killing as Biden Prepares for Presidency - U.S. News & World ReportIran Delays Retaliation Over Scientist’s Killing as Biden Prepares for Presidency  U.S. News & World Report

Iran nuclear deal: Tehran rules out informal talks on reviving accord - BBC NewsIran nuclear deal: Tehran rules out informal talks on reviving accord  BBC News

Why Iran’s nuclear facilities are still vulnerable to attack - BBC NewsWhy Iran’s nuclear facilities are still vulnerable to attack  BBC News

“Maximum Pressure” Hardened Iran Against Compromise - Foreign Affairs Magazine“Maximum Pressure” Hardened Iran Against Compromise  Foreign Affairs Magazine

Proxy war between Iran and Israel heats up - The New Indian ExpressProxy war between Iran and Israel heats up  The New Indian Express

Iran talks 'avert' impact of nuclear inspection deadline - BBC NewsIran talks 'avert' impact of nuclear inspection deadline  BBC News

Iran may pursue nuclear weapon, intel minister warns West - Times of IndiaIran may pursue nuclear weapon, intel minister warns West  Times of India

Iran's U.N. ambassador says Iran is waiting for President Biden to make the first diplomatic move - NBC NewsIran's U.N. ambassador says Iran is waiting for President Biden to make the first diplomatic move  NBC News

Iran widely criticized in 14 advanced economies - Pew Research CenterIran widely criticized in 14 advanced economies  Pew Research Center

Twitter bans Iran's Ayatollah Khamenei after Trump threat - The HinduTwitter bans Iran's Ayatollah Khamenei after Trump threat  The Hindu

"Be Careful Of Trap": Iran's Minister's Warning To Trump To Avoid War - NDTV"Be Careful Of Trap": Iran's Minister's Warning To Trump To Avoid War  NDTV

IAEA chief warns against military strike on Iran - NBC NewsIAEA chief warns against military strike on Iran  NBC News

How the Iran-Iraq war will shape the region for decades to come - Brookings InstitutionHow the Iran-Iraq war will shape the region for decades to come  Brookings Institution

Iran's New Doctrine: Pivot to the East - The DiplomatIran's New Doctrine: Pivot to the East  The Diplomat

Iran seizes South Korean tanker as tensions with US mount - The GuardianIran seizes South Korean tanker as tensions with US mount  The Guardian

Iran rejects Israel PM's charge it attacked ship - Times of IndiaIran rejects Israel PM's charge it attacked ship  Times of India

Iran: Relentless Repression of Dissent - Human Rights WatchIran: Relentless Repression of Dissent  Human Rights Watch

Iran's calculated risk - The HinduIran's calculated risk  The Hindu

Iran to meet with United Nations technical experts over uranium find - NBC NewsIran to meet with United Nations technical experts over uranium find  NBC News

Iran - Chatham HouseIran  Chatham House

Iran starts 20% uranium enrichment, seizes South Korean ship - The Associated PressIran starts 20% uranium enrichment, seizes South Korean ship  The Associated Press

Iranian Dissidents Urge Biden to Press Tehran on Human Rights, Democracy - Voice of AmericaIranian Dissidents Urge Biden to Press Tehran on Human Rights, Democracy  Voice of America

On Revolution Anniversary, Analysts Blame Iran's Islamist Ideology for National Decline - Voice of AmericaOn Revolution Anniversary, Analysts Blame Iran's Islamist Ideology for National Decline  Voice of America

Mohsen Fakhrizadeh: 'Machine-gun with AI' used to kill Iran scientist - BBC NewsMohsen Fakhrizadeh: 'Machine-gun with AI' used to kill Iran scientist  BBC News

EU foreign ministers pave way for revival of Iran nuclear deal - The GuardianEU foreign ministers pave way for revival of Iran nuclear deal  The Guardian

Iran’s vaccination drive becomes ensnared in geopolitics - Financial TimesIran’s vaccination drive becomes ensnared in geopolitics  Financial Times

India may turn to Iran, Venezuela for oil imports - Hindustan TimesIndia may turn to Iran, Venezuela for oil imports  Hindustan Times

Iran says it would rejoin nuclear deal within an hour of US doing so - The GuardianIran says it would rejoin nuclear deal within an hour of US doing so  The Guardian

Iran's Khamenei Demands 'Action' From Biden to Revive Nuclear Deal - Voice of AmericaIran's Khamenei Demands 'Action' From Biden to Revive Nuclear Deal  Voice of America

Biden Wants to Rejoin Iran Nuclear Deal, but It Won’t Be Easy - The New York TimesBiden Wants to Rejoin Iran Nuclear Deal, but It Won’t Be Easy  The New York Times

Biden’s decision to strike Iran’s proxies is a good start - Brookings InstitutionBiden’s decision to strike Iran’s proxies is a good start  Brookings Institution

Iran's Supreme Leader: Who might succeed Ali Khamenei? - BBC NewsIran's Supreme Leader: Who might succeed Ali Khamenei?  BBC News

Biden team considers options on Iran nuclear deal - Financial TimesBiden team considers options on Iran nuclear deal  Financial Times

Al-Qaeda: Pompeo says Iran is jihadist network's 'new home base' - BBC NewsAl-Qaeda: Pompeo says Iran is jihadist network's 'new home base'  BBC News

Iran: No Justice for Victims of Downed Plane - Human Rights WatchIran: No Justice for Victims of Downed Plane  Human Rights Watch

The Instagrammers who worry Iran - BBC NewsThe Instagrammers who worry Iran  BBC News

A Biden administration wants the Iran nuclear deal back. That could be much harder and riskier now - CNBCA Biden administration wants the Iran nuclear deal back. That could be much harder and riskier now  CNBC

After Trump, what will Biden do about Iran? - BBC NewsAfter Trump, what will Biden do about Iran?  BBC News

How Iran Has Brought Israel and Arab States Together - BloombergHow Iran Has Brought Israel and Arab States Together  Bloomberg

Saudi Arabia and Iran have not always been foes - Al Jazeera EnglishSaudi Arabia and Iran have not always been foes  Al Jazeera English

Iran Wants the Nuclear Deal It Made - Foreign Affairs MagazineIran Wants the Nuclear Deal It Made  Foreign Affairs Magazine

VIDEO: Iran Inducts New Special Operations Ship - USNI News - USNI NewsVIDEO: Iran Inducts New Special Operations Ship - USNI News  USNI News